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Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of managing information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users, editing it as needed, monitoring data changes, and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is part of the informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts of information for a range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables which organize data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields called attributes that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most well-known database type currently. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require changing many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the way the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views that are based on different models of data and may include virtual table that are computed using generic data to improve the performance.

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